Pinehurst was developed by Boston Philanthropist James Walker Tuft. It started out as a boarding house, 20 cottages, and the Holly Inn which opened in 1895. The Carolina hotel opened in 1901 and was known as a health resort with lush surroundings and popular recreational activities. Annie Oakley, star of the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show was in charge of the Pinehurst Gun Club from 1916 to 1920. Pinehurst’s first 18-hole course, Pinehurst No. 1, was constructed in 1898.